Saturday, March 28, 2015

Death and Facebook. The Legacy Feature.

A friend of mine died and his wife posted his death and funeral arrangements on his Facebook page. In this era of social media, Facebook is a natural and expected forum to notify friends and relatives of such information. Unfortunately, use of his Facebook account was unauthorized by Facebook and constituted criminal behaviour under both Massachusetts and Federal law. At the time of his death, his wife had no other way to use his Facebook account to provide notice. Since that time, Facebook has changed its policies and now has a Legacy feature for memorization of Facebook pages after death.

Facebook's Terms of Service states: “You will not share your password let anyone else access your account, or do anything else that might jeopardize the security of your account.” In other words, the only authorized user of a Facebook page is the registered owner. There is no exception for family members after death. Authorization is important because both Massachusetts and Federal law make it a crime for any person who is not an authorized user to access a computer. Since using Facebook means that a user accesses Facebook's computer, any person who is not authorized by Facebook and uses another person's account is committing a crime. Massachusetts General Laws chapter 266, section120F punishes unauthorized computer access by up to thirty days in jail and a one thousand dollar fine. United States Code Title 18Section 1030 punishes unauthorized computer access by up to twenty years in prison and fines. Permission to use a Facebook account by the registered owner of the account is still a crime because Facebook doesn't allow such permission. A widow posting information about her husband's death is unauthorized and a criminal act.

Facebook has recognized people's desires to use Facebook accounts after death and has created a new feature called Legacy. During a person's life, they can designate a person as a “Legacy Contact.” This person will have limited rights to access a Facebook account after a person dies. The Legacy Contact can post a final message and Memorialize the account. Memorialization freezes the account, indicates that the owner died and may allow others to share memories on the account.

Every individual with a Facebook account should consider a legacy contact. This should become part of estate planning and become just as routine as writing a will or making pre-death funeral arrangements. Unauthorized computer access can have serious criminal consequences. A lawyer can help understand how to avoid violating the law and still enjoy social media.



Sunday, March 15, 2015

Civil remedies for spying with technology

In the past I have blogged about using technology to spy on a spouse the potential consequences. I have written about criminal penalties, and civil lawsuits. A recent case, Tinory v. DePierre, Mass.App.Div. No. 14-ADMS-4022 (2015), involved a GPS device planted on a car. This resulted in a claim for trespass. Trespass is normally thought of as the unpermitted, illegal entry onto a person's real property. However, Massachusetts law does allow trespass to personal property. In the Tinory case, the wife in a divorce action hired a private investigator to place a global positioning system device (GPS) on her husband's truck to monitor his whereabouts. This resulted in a lawsuit for trespass because there was an unpermitted, illegal touching of personal property (the truck.)

It is clear that society does not want people to spy on their spouses with technology. While people think that they will get an advantage in a divorce is they get information by spying, it rarely works that way.  There are a number of laws with criminal penalties for spying and people may sue in civil court for damages when such spying occurs.  In addition, Family Court judges don't want to encourage spying by allowing such evidence to be used.  


If you are the victim of electronic spying you should consult a lawyer who can advise you about the law and your options.  

Sunday, March 8, 2015

Can an out of state divorce decree be modified by a Massachusetts Court?

In a recent case, Cohen v. Cohen, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that Massachusetts had no jurisdiction to modify a California divorce decree to order college expenses and child support. This case is easily misunderstood as the decision is limited to a particular type of case.

In the Cohen case, the parties were divorced in California and the Wife and child continued to live in California. The husband moved to Massachusetts. This meant that the Wife had to use the Massachusetts Courts to enforce the California divorce judgment. She could have hired a Massachusetts lawyer to collect her child support or she could have used the California child support agency to collect the money. She selected the California child support agency.

Every state has an agency which collects child support for residents of the state. In the Cohen case, the California agency initiated an interstate child support collection action under the Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA.) Both Massachusetts and California (and probably all other states) have enacted UIFSA into their state law. While it was California in this case it could have been any state. Under UIFSA, California asked Massachusetts to file a case to enforce the California divorce decree and California law. An action was filed in Massachusetts by the Department of Revenue (DOR.) to enforce the judgment. While the Massachusetts Court had all of the powers under Massachusetts law to enforce the judgment, it had no power to modify the judgment. In the Cohen case, the divorce decree made no provisions for college education or medical bills of the child. The Massachusetts Court was unable to make any orders relating to payment of college education or medical bills.

This case doesn't mean that the Wife in the Cohen case could never ask a Massachusetts Court to modify the California Judgment. It only means that she couldn't modify under UIFSA. She could have hired a Massachusetts lawyer to enforce the California decree and modify the judgment. Had she proceeded in this manner, she would have enabled the Massachusetts Court to use all of its powers and authority including the power to modify the California judgment. If the Wife had filed an action in Massachusetts it would have been very expensive. She would have had to pay for a Massachusetts lawyer instead of having DOR represent her for free. She would have had to travel to Massachusetts for the trial and possibly for a pre-trial conference instead of staying in California. Of course, there is no guarantee that a Massachusetts court would apply Massachusetts law and modify the judgment. Instead, the court could have ruled that the Wife must file a modification in California or that Massachusetts would apply California law. As a general rule, using UIFSA for interstate child support enforcement is a better choice.

Interstate child support enforcement is a complicated area of law. If you have a case that crosses state lines you should consult an experienced family law attorney.




Monday, February 9, 2015

Pre-Nuptial Agreements are not automatically enforced.

Pre-Nuptial Agreements are not automatically enforced.

Pre-nuptial agreements in Massachusetts are enforced if they are fair at the time of the execution of the agreement and fair at the time of the enforcement of the agreement. Fairness at the time of the execution means that there was complete financial disclosure, had the ability to obtain advice of counsel, the agreement was free of duress, misrepresentation, and fraud and the terms are fair. Since the agreement must also be fair at the time of enforcement, the Courts take a “second look” at the agreement and view it in the context of the financial circumstances at that time. The agreement will be enforced unless the court finds that it is unconscionable. This means that the agreement will be enforced unless the agreement would leave the contesting spouse without sufficient property, maintenance, or appropriate employment to support herself.

In a recent case, Kelcourse v.Kelcourse, Mass.App.Ct. (Jan. 21, 2015), the court refused to enforce a pre-nuptial agreement. The agreement on its face appeared fair. The agreement gave the
Wife a house and alimony as part of the settlement. The problem was that the house needed over $300,000.00 in repairs and had negative equity. The Wife lacked funds to repair the house and, due to the negative equity, was unable to sell the house. The Court found that the condition and finances of the house rendered the agreement unconscionable and unenforceable.


The Kelcourse case means that in Massachusetts the second look is a real and substantial examination. The Court won't enforce the agreement if the spouse won't be able to support herself. In other words, disclosure and lack of duress is not enough to make an agreement enforceable. The second look must examine the circumstances to see if the facts and enforcement would shock the conscience.

If parties want a pre-nuptial agreement they should consult family law attorneys to advise them. This is not an area where parties should do-it-yourself. When the parties seek to enforce the agreement it may be too late to fix any problems.



Sunday, February 8, 2015

In Massachusetts, home improvement contractors need to follow the rules.

Massachusetts legislation protects homeowners from the unscrupulous contractor. They regulate
Violation of any of these requirements can result in criminal charges or, in a civil case, payment of treble damages and attorney fees of the homeowner.  A recent case, Groleau v Russo-Gabriele (Norfolk Superior Court No. 2012-1818) (Nov 26, 2014), the court found that writing a contract that took away the homeowner's right to arbitration was an unfair or deceptive act. As a result, the contractor had to pay the damages the homeowner incurred to finish the construction and pay treble damages and attorney fees.

This case shows that contractors have to comply with the state regulations and that homeowner's can't contract away their protections. It is a complicated area of the law. Contractors should consult an attorney before soliciting business from homeowners. Homeowners should consult an attorney before signing a contract for home repairs.

Sunday, February 1, 2015

The New Massachusetts Alimony Law – A Deal is a Deal

In 2011 Massachusetts enacted an alimony reform law. This law changed many aspects of alimony including imposing termination of alimony when the payor reaches the maximum retirement age and when the payee cohabits. Since enactment of this law, lawyers and Judges have been struggling with the question of how do these changes affect prior alimony agreements and judgments. On January 30, 2015 the Supreme Judicial Court answered this question by stating in essence that a deal is a deal. The Court held that the limits for cohabitation and retirement do not apply retroactively to alimony agreements and judgments that pre-date the enactment of the new law.

This interpretation of the new law does not apply to all alimony judgments. When parties enter into a separation agreement, they have the ability to specify that the agreement merges into the divorce judgment or survives as an independent agreement. If the agreement merges with the divorce then the agreement may be modified in the future if certain conditions are met. If the agreement survives as an independent contract, then the agreement can't be modified by a judge. It may be modified by agreement of the parties. The new alimony law does not give the courts the power to change any prior separation agreements that survive. This new interpretation only applies to separation agreements that merged into the decree of divorce.

In three cases, Chin v. Merriot, Doktorv. Doktor, and Rodman v. Rodman, the court held that with one exception, all alimony judgments that pre-date the new law are subject to modification as if the new law never went into effect. This means that alimony can change if the terms of the separation agreement or divorce judgment state conditions that will change or terminate the alimony or if there is a material change of circumstances. Reaching retirement age or the recipient of alimony cohabitating only constitutes a material change of circumstances if the agreement specifically states so. Otherwise, there can not be a modification for these reasons.

These decisions indicated that the new law does allow termination of alimony for what is known as “durational limits.” For marriages less than twenty years, alimony is limited to a percentage of the length of the marriage. The longer the marriage, the higher the percentage. Prior alimony awards that had no termination date that are merged into the decree of divorce and the length of the marriage is less than twenty years are subject to these durational limits. As a result, a modification may be filed to terminate alimony under these circumstances.



The new alimony law is very complicated. If you have questions about the application of this law you should consult an experienced family law attorney for advice about your particular situation.

Saturday, January 17, 2015

What can a parent do when they are the victim of parental alienation?

There is no perfect answer to this question. As long as one parent keeps fueling the alienation flames, the alienation will continue. Every case of parental alienation is different but the cause is the same. One parent uses the children as weapons to hurt the other parent. In essence, the parent is sacrificing the children's well being to fulfill their own selfish desires. The following suggestions may make no difference or may solve the problem.
  1. Keep a diary. This should detail all of your attempts to maintain a relationship with the children and the children's responses. Whenever possible, backup the diary with documents that corroborate the information you note. Emails, telephone bills, and receipts from stores and restaurants should be preserved. Use an email program that documents when the emails are read by the recipient.
  2. Take advantage of all contacts permitted by the court. Don't miss any visits. Make telephone calls or Skype calls every day if allowed by the court. Use texting to communicate with the children but not excessively. Send gifts or cards for every occasion possible. Cards are created for many holidays such as New Years, Valentine's Day, Independence Day, and many others. Make sure you have copies of the cards and enter the mailing of the cards and the gifts in your diary. Of course, make sure you send gifts for major holidays or events like birthdays or Christmas.
  3. Attend every event in your child's life. Don't miss a dance recital, a little league, a concert, or any other event in which your child is a participant. Contact the school and obtain information about events, parent teacher conferences, and make sure the school has your contact information. Do the same for the child's pediatrician, dentist, and other doctors. Make sure you are on time for each event.
  4. Do everything that the court orders. If the court orders counseling, make sure you go to counseling. If the court orders drug tests, make sure you avoid using drugs and take every test ordered. Continue counseling and drug tests even if the children or the other parent stop attending.
  5. Take a parenting class. You may be the best parent in the world but the court will be impressed by your efforts to improve yourself.
  6. Never ever use physical force to discipline your children. The law may permit use of reasonable force but you are under a microscope and can't afford the luxury of using physical force. The exception is that you may have to restrain (but not hit) a child to prevent harm to another child, yourself, or someone else.
  7. Avoid discussions with your child about the alienation, child support, or any issue you have with the other parent. Make sure the children can't hear when you have discussions with other people about these matters.
  8. Be careful about use of social media. You should assume that everything you post on social media will be reported to the Court. Never say anything critical or negative about your children, the other parent, the attorneys, or the Court. Social media can be used to make positive statements about the children but do so sparingly. Don't comment on every posting by your children. It will make you look like a stalker.
  9. Tell your children that you love them. Tell them this at the end of every phone call and every visit. Don't overdo this. Once a day is fine. Four times a day makes you look crazy. Don't ask the children to respond in kind. Pressuring the children for affection is certain to hurt you.
  10. Be persistent and consistent in your efforts to maintain your relationship with your children. Don't give up hope no matter how frustrating it becomes.
  11. Retain a family law attorney and regularly discuss the parental alienation and your efforts to maintain the relationship. In many cases, only court action can stop the abuse to the children. An experienced family law attorney should be able to advise you about when to resort to the courts. Like everything else in regards to parental alienation, it may take a number of court actions before you start to see results.  In the most severe cases of parental alienation the court can  change custody.